YELLOW STEM BORER(Scirpophaga incertulas)

YELLOW STEM BORER

  • It is a lepidopterian insect.
  • The female fly which has a pair of black dot on its wings is mostly hazardous.
  • Its newly hatched larva causes dead heart at seedling stage and white ear head at flowering stage.
  • It has 6 brooding stages.

Control Measure:-

Any pestisides/ insectisides which contain chloropyriphos as ingredient. It is recommended that all the pestisides/ insectisides should be applied in alternate manners.


BROWN PLANT HOPPER(Nilaparvata lugens)

BROWN PLANT HOPPER

  • It is a homopterian insect.
  • Both nymphs and adults suck sap from the basal portions of the plants insert eggs into leaf sheaths and inject some toxins and causes yellowing of leaves leading to drying as picture shows.
  • They also transmit grassy stunt virus disease.

Control Measure:-

Holding more water at the time of panicle initiation to flowering is the favorable condition for BPH attack. If the attack is severe apply Asataff solution (1.5 gm/ lit) towards base of the plant. Some other chemicals like Aplaud (2ml/lit) monocrotophos, etc. are also effective.


LEAF FOLDER (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis)

LEAF FOLDER

  • It is a lepidopterian insect.
  • Adults are small brownish orange coloured moth.
  • Moth lay egg on the leaf surface as shown in picture.
  • Larvae feed on leaf tissue and fold the leaves longitudinally and live in the tube thus formed.
  • It reduces vigour of the plant mainly at leaf boot stage.

Control Measure:-

Endosulfan (35% EC), chloropyriphos etc. are effective for this case.


BACTERIAL LEAF STREAK (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola)

BACTERIAL LEAF STREAK

  • It is a bacterial seed borne disease.
  • Disease is identified with the orange brown interveinal streaks run parallel to the veins of leaves.
  • The occurrence of such disease is highly environmental influenced and has relation with the application of N2 fertilizer.

Control Measure:-

No such doses are there, split application of nitrogen when it required to the plant is only way to escape from such disease.


BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)

BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT

  • It is a bacterial seed borne disease.
  • Disease is identified by the drying of leaf blades from tip and leaf margin forming yellow to white strips initially and in later stage the leaf blades are straw colored with wavy margin.
  • The occurrence of such disease is highly environmental influenced and has relation with the application of N2 fertilizer.

Control Measure:-

No such doses are there, split application of nitrogen when it required to the plant is only way to escape from such disease.


FALSE SMUT (Ustilaginoidea virens)

FALSE SMUT

  • It is a seed borne fungal disease.
  • Picture shows the symptom of this disease.
  • Low minimum temperature with high relative humidity before and during flowering and cloudy weather along with little precipitation is conducive conditions for the disease development.

Control Measure:-

Spraying of Fungicop (Copper oxychloride) or carbendazim at the time of panicle emergence and again after 7-10 days effectively reduces the incident of such disease.


SHEATH BLIGHT (Rhizoctonia solani)

SHEATH BLIGHT

  • It is a seed and soil borne fungal disease.
  • Close spacing and the plant with compact cluster are very prone to this disease.
  • Over wintering of fungal spores take place in stubbles after harvesting of paddy crop for more than one-one and half years.
  • Symptom first occur at the basal leaf sheath and it spreaded in upward direction and causing death of the leaf.
  • In severe condition the whole plant may die.

Control Measure:-

Split application of nitrogen.

Spray application of hexaconazole (2ml/lit) or Propaconozole (Tilt, 1.56ml/lit) or Contaff+ is also effective


ROOT ROT (Saracladium oryzae)

ROOT ROT

  • It is a fungal disease.
  • It occurs in the rice field when the TP is done just after ploughing i.e. The weeds of the field are not facilited to get rotted so that an organic gas is liberated from them which is became stimulatory for the growing of such fungus.

Control Measure:-

The difference between ploughing and TP should be minimum 6-7 days so that the organic mulch becomes completely rotted.


BLAST (Pyricularia oryzae)

BLAST

  • It is a fungal seed borne and air borne disease.
  • It appears as minute brown specks on the leaves.
  • Under low night temperature and high humidity the lesion enlarge and attain spindle shape, Pointed at both ends with brown margin and grayish centre.
  • Apart from the leaves, Node of the culm and neck of the panicles are also infected.
  • It reduces the photosynthetic activity of leaves.

Control Measure:-

Seed treatement with suitable fungicide is very much essential in this case. Spraying with tricyclozole @ .5 gms/lit when first symptoms are noticed controls the disease effectively


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